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英语中的过渡性词语

来源:藏网整理 作者:fawenzhang 人气: 发布时间:2018-06-08 19:09
摘要:过渡性词语(Transitional Expressions)是指那些在 中对上下文起承上启下作用的词语,常由副词、连词及一些词组构成。一篇语言流畅、脉络清晰的 离不开作者对过渡性词语的恰当运用。相关

过渡性词语(Transitional Expressions)是指那些在 中对上下文起承上启下作用的词语,常由副词、连词及一些词组构成。一篇语言流畅、脉络清晰的 离不开作者对过渡性词语的恰当运用。相关调查显示,中国学生对英语中的过渡性词语的掌握情况不容乐观,很多学生知道并能准确运用的过渡性词语不超过10个。因此,熟悉和掌握大学英语中的过渡性词语对同学们来说迫在眉睫,这对提高英语写作水平将会起到非常关键的作用。

过渡性词语表达的是句与句或段与段之间的某 逻辑关系。大学英语中常用的过渡性词语可分为以下几类:

一、表示并列、递进和强调关系的过渡性词语

主要有also, again, and, and then, besides, in addition(此外), additionally(此外), furthermore(此外,而且), moreover(而且), especially(尤其), in particular( 别)等。例如:

1. Students who work part-time earn extra money; moreover, they learn a lot about the society they live in. 做兼职的学生不仅能挣些外快,而且还能多了解一些他们所处的社会。

2. Mr. Smith displeased the hostess. He smoked too much; further鄄more, he dropped ash all over the rug. 史密斯先生让女主人很不高兴,因为他烟抽得太多了,而且,还把烟灰掉了一地毯。

3. You must make clear all the people’s names who attend this meeting. In addition, you should record all the speeches during the meeting. 你必须弄清所有与会者的姓名,此外,会议期间你还要记录下所有的发言。

二、表示先后次序、时间和频次的过渡性词语

主要有firstly, secondly, lastly, finally, eventually, at first, at last, first of all, in the first place, prior to(在……之前), formerly(从前), previously(以前), presently(目前), at present, so far, for the time being(目前), later on, then, soon, shortly, before long, afterwards(后来,在这之后), since then, thereafter(在那之后), meanwhile(其间), in the meantime(与此同时), at the same time, simultaneously(同时地), immediately, as soon as, occasionally(偶尔), frequently等。例如:

1. Prior to the Independence War, the United States was an English colony. 独立战争之前,美国是英国的殖民地。

2. You left before eleven. What did you do afterwards? 你是十一点离开的,之后你做了什么?

3. On the opening day all tickets are sold a dollar; thereafter they’ll be sold two dollars. 第一天,票价是一美元,之后将会售两美元。

4. The doctor will see you again next week. Meanwhile, you must rest as much as possible. 医生下周还会给你看病,在此期间,你必须尽可能地多休息。

5. The game will be broadcast simultaneously on TV and radio. 比赛将同时在电视和广播中进行转播。

三、表示比较、对照和对比关系的过渡性词语

主要有on one hand ... on the other hand, as well as, similarly, likewise(同样地), otherwise(否则,不然;除此以外), by the same to-ken, as opposed to, by contrast, in (total) contrast to(与……相比), (be) contrary to, on the contrary, conversely(相反地,反过来), by comparison(多用于句首), by / in comparison (with sb/sth)(与……相比较)等。例如:

1. Her second marriage was likewise unhappy. 她的第二次婚姻也不幸福。

2. There was some music playing upstairs. Otherwise the house was silent. 楼上有些音乐声。除此之外,房子里静悄悄的。

3. Contrary to our expectation, the Miami Heat won the game. 与我们所期待的相反,迈阿密热火队赢了这场比赛。

4. A: It must have been terrible. 那一定很可怕。

B: On the contrary, I enjoyed very minute. 恰恰相反,我享受每一分钟。

5. The poverty of her childhood stands in total contrast to her luxurious life in Hollywood. 她在好莱坞生活的奢华与她童年时的贫穷形成了鲜明的对照。

6. By comparison, expenditure on education increased last year. 比较起来,去年的教育支出增加了。

7. The tallest buildings in London are small in comparison with New York’s skyscrapers. 与纽约的摩天大楼相比,伦敦最高的建筑也显得矮小了。

四、表示因果关系的过渡性词语

主要有because, so, because of, accordingly(相应地,因此), as a result, consequently(结果), hence = for this reason, therefore(因此), thus(以此方式,如此;因此), due to(由于), owing to(由于)等。例如:

1. The present birth rate is increasing and the death rate is decreasing. Therefore, the world’s population is growing at a frightening pace.目前,出生率上升,死亡率下降,因此世界人口数量正以惊人的速度增长。

2. I missed the train and consequently was late for school. 我错过了那趟火车,因此上学迟到了。

3. The cost of materials rose sharply last year. Accordingly, we were forced to increase our prices. 去年材料成本大幅度提高,因此我们被迫提价。

4. We did not win the game. Thus, we will not meet John’s team in next round. 我们没有赢得这场比赛。因此,我们 不能与约翰的队伍在下一轮相遇了。

5. Owing to all my classmates’ effort, our class won the competition. 由于所有同学的努力,在这次竞赛中,我们班获胜。

6. That Shelley became a poet may have been due to his mother’s influence. 雪莱成为诗人可能是由于受他母亲的影响。

五、表示列举和解释说明关系的过渡性词语

主要有a case in point(恰当的例子), namely = that is(那 是), for example, for instance, specifically, such as, in my view, as for me, as far as ... be concerned( ……而言), after all, in any case等。例如:

1. Only one person can complete the task, namely you. 只有一个人能完成这项任务,那 是你。

2. As far as I’m concerned, I don’t like that kind of skirt. 我而言,我不喜欢那样的裙子。

六、表示让步和转折关系的过渡性词语

主要有for all this, in spite of, despite, nevertheless(尽管如此,然而), even though, although, nonetheless(尽管如此), regardless of(不管), but, though, whereas(用以比较或对比两个事实,表示"然而"), however, even so等。例如:

1. Defeat was obvious; even so, the players continued to try their best to win. 尽管已很明显落败了,但队员们仍全力以赴。

2. In spite of all his efforts he failed. 尽管他很努力,他仍旧失败了。

3. Some of the studies show positive results, whereas others do not. 一些研究显示了肯定的结果,而另一些却不然。

4. He’s charming; nevertheless, I don’t quite trust him. 尽管他很迷人,可是我却不十分信任他。

七、总结、重复和概述性的过渡性词语

主要有generally speaking, in general, in brief(简言之,总而言之), in short, in summary, in conclusion, in essence, in other words, to sum up, to summarize, all in all(从各方面考虑,总的说来), by and large(总体上), boil down to sth(归结为……), on the whole, as has been noted, as we have seen, as mentioned earlier等。例如:

1. In brief, you realized your aims. 总而言之,你实现了你的目标。

2. All in all, it had been a great success. 总的说来,那是个巨大的成功。

3. By and large, I enjoyed my time at school. 总的说来,我在学校很开心。

4. In the end, what it all boils down to is money, or the lack of it. 问题的症结是钱,或者说是缺钱。

牛刀小试

请从下列方框里的词或词组中选出最合适的一个完成句子。

on the contrary furthermore therefore in short

1. We were tired and hungry, and ______ eager to reach our destination as soon as possible.

2. When a student challenged his theory, the professor was not displeased as we expected; _______, he encouraged us to think independently.

3. That play is depressing. The plot is weird and the characterization is poor. _______, it is a failure.

答案及解析

1. therefore。句意:我们又累又饿,因此急于尽可能快地到达目的地。分析:本句的前半部分"We were tired and hungry"是后半部分"eager to reach our destination as soon as possible"的原因,因此空格部分需要一个表示因果关系的过渡词语,故选therefore,意为"因此(for that reason)"。

2. on the contrary。句意:当学生挑战这位教授的理论时,他并没有像我们预想的那样不高兴,相反他还鼓励我们要独立思考。分析:空格后"he encouraged us to think independently"表达的是与空格前"the professor was not displeased as we expected"相对比的一 相反的情况,故选on the contrary(恰恰相反)。

3. In short。句意:那个剧本让人感到沉闷。它情节怪诞,人物塑造单一。简而言之,那是个失败的剧作。分析:空格后"it is a failure"是对前面所述情况的一个总结,故用in short,由于其被用于句首,"in"首字母要大写。

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标签:过渡性     责任编辑:fawenzhang

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